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Puzzles
Puzzles

Red Card

Puzzle

Alice repeatedly draws a card randomly, without replacement, from a pack of fifty-two cards. Bob has a one-time privilege to raise his hand just before a card is about to be drawn. Bob must execute his privilege before the last card is drawn. If the card drawn is Red just after Bob raises his hand, Bob wins; otherwise he loses. Is there any way for Bob to be correct more than half the times he plays this game with Alice?

Source

Heard from Prof Huzur Saran in 1994.

Solution

Imagine that whenever Bob raises his hand, Alice draws the last card in the pile (instead of the next card). This process is equivalent to the original process as far as the color of the card being drawn is concerned. So the probability that the card drawn is red is half. In other words, Bob can never be correct more than half the times he plays this game with Alice.

A set of fuel dumps on a circular racetrack have just enough gasoline for one car to make one round trip. Prove that there exists a fuel dump from which one car, starting with an empty gas tank, can complete the round trip.

Next Puzzle: My Cap Color

At the Secret Convention of Logicians, the Master Logician placed a band on each attendee's head, such that everyone else could see it but the person themselves could not. There were many, many different colours of band. The Logicians all sat in a circle, and the Master instructed them that a bell was to be rung in the forest at regular intervals: at the moment when a Logician knew the colour on his own forehead, he was to leave at the next bell. Anyone who left at the wrong bell was clearly not a true Logician but an evil infiltrator and would be thrown out of the Convention post haste; but the Master reassures the group by stating that the puzzle would not be impossible for anybody present. How did they do it?

30 Nov 2010
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